Time Zone Boogie

When travelling one is likely to move across time zones to areas where the living hours are slightly or, in the case of a long east-west flight, drastically, different from your home space. On this trip, I have a 14 hour gap between my present location and my home time zone and core audience who reside there. Maintaining communications with friends and family at home across a time difference can put a strain on travel causing late nights and early wake ups. While asynchronous communication methods such as email or Facebook messages are an easy way to avoid this, there is a strange thrill gained by talking in real time to people in a different time of day (even better, a different day) which seems to prolong these conversations or draw one into them when a familiar avatar pops up even though you know you should be going to bed. Living between two (or more) different time zones: knowing when other people are going to bed, waking up, coming home from work, and considering this within one’s own daily routine, is what I think of as the time zone boogie.

In addition to personal communication on Skype or Facebook, the move across time zones has also altered my blogging routine as I try to hold off posting until I know people at home will be awake. It is a well known fact that social media platforms have certain peak periods in which higher numbers of users are online and/or users are more active. These peak periods relate to social factors such as working hours or weekends, and change according to the platform’s function and demographics. By posting within these periods one is able to increase the likelihood of other users coming across a post and potentially gain higher numbers of interaction through likes, shares, follows etc.

Any blogger who monitors their statistics should have an idea of who their core audience is, what country they live in and when they are likely to be active on social media. During travel, the blogger may need to make amendments to their regular posting routine in order to connect with their core audience (i.e. posting at lunchtime while on vacation in order to have it reach their home country in the evening). If the traveller is unlucky, however, peak times may be at an inconvenient, or impossible, hour and they will be forced to resort to alternative methods. One of these is using a ‘schedule post’ feature which allows the user to upload material and then have it posted at a particular time in the future, another is having an assistant who can make posts for you, and a third is just giving up and posting whenever. Indeed, this last option may open up new avenues for reaching a wider audience, as I have been experimenting with on this trip by using hashtags in the local language.

In terms of the implications for travel behaviour, the time zone boogie may create an obligation for the travellers to use the Internet at particular times within the day which may restrict their ability to participate in the travelled to environment. Again, the degree to which the blogger conforms to these routines and foregoes time in the physical landscape (or sleep) in order to use social media depends on the strength of their Social Media Pilgrimage, i.e. their commitment to narrativising events for the online audience.


How has Social Media Affected How we Travel ?

This is a big question. Look online and you will find a number of results questioning whether social media has “ruined” travel (in addition to other suggestions accusing social media of ruining marriages, friendships, privacy etc) alongside a  number of blog posts and opinion pieces trying to come to terms with the era of social travel. Whether hype, buzz, real concern, or otherwise, collectively, these pieces demonstrate the degree to which the travel experience has changed now that we carry the world around in our pockets, and try, in their own ways, to sum up what this change means to travel.

From this slew of articles, I have chosen the 4 pieces which to me best lead the way in describing what social travel is. Within these, the authors try to understand social travel by directly comparing it with the former, unconnected, travel era. The tone ranges from hopeful to disappointed but each does well in nutting out particular facets of travel experience and how they are changing as digital technology is added to the cross cultural immersion of travel.

Here they are (from oldest to newest):

1. How Social media Ruined backpacking through Europe  
Alexander Besant  The Globe and Mail   September 17th 2013

Besant kicked off the storm writing in late 2013. Catalysed by a recent trip to Europe with his father (who was something of travel junkie in his younger days), Besant compares his own and his father’s trips in the unconnected era with his experiences meeting (seemingly all younger) social travellers. Besant claims that social travellers are less involved with the destinations they visit. They know less about the sights they see and have less contact with locals. On the other hand, they are more connected with home, keeping up to date with “hometown gossip” even, and gaining more security from this connection.

Besant believes that because travellers were so isolated before they had to work harder, but experienced more in the form of “discovery and disappointment and chance connections”. Nowadays, given not only the Internet, but also mass tourism, experiences are more transactional, and constant connection with home negates any opportunity to travel “in any meaningful sense”, meaning, it seems, to disconnect from home and connect with the visited location.

What is this article saying about social tourism?
Besant situates social tourism within the wider paradigm of capitalist economic development (such as the formation of the euro zone). Social tourism, as a facet of mass tourism, makes it harder for tourists to experience alterity as they are constantly connected to home space which prohibits them from sinking into the destination.

In one sentence: Travel used to be harder but more rewarding, now, with the net, it is easier but more superficial.

2. Grand Tour of the Self
Timothy Egan  The New York Times  November 21st 2014

In this short opinion piece, Egan compares the behaviour of modern social tourists with practioners of the 19th century ‘grand tour’ – an extended multi-country soujourn undertaken by moneyed travellers to broaden their cultural horizons. Egan calls travel selfies a form of “digital narcissism” but notes that that practioners of the grand tour were also narcissistic: “No proper grand-tour rite of passage in 19th-century Europe was complete without a commissioned portrait of a dandified squire posing in a room with a view”. The difference, he notes, is that former travellers, while egotistical, were more apt to settle into the landscape and appreciate it for what it was, while modern travellers are so “ cocooned and isolated” by technology they are incapable of doing anything but contemplate their own selves in the foreign landscape (or, their dinner plates). Inasmuch they experience and learn less.

What is this article saying about social travel:
Travel is a self-agrandising experience, yet, Internet technology changes how we experience the landscape, and why we go to foreign places. The purpose of travel has gone from “from immersion and surprise to documentary one-upmanship.” Perhaps the main focus of social travel is to perform the self for the audience amidst the travelled to landscape: to document and brag about one’s events online and, presumably, to receive status in turn. Doing which, we have so many connections and opportunities on the Internet that it becomes almost impossible to focus on the physical moment, which despite the inherent posturing and preening of travel behaviour in general, was one major reason we went overseas: to look beyond our own borders.

In one sentence: Travel is egotistical, but with a clear head, it is rewarding, without which it starts to become base.

3. Are Travel Selfies Narcissistic?
Maria Lombard  CNN  April 17, 2015

Here, Lombard considers the reasons for taking selfies and other practices of narrativising travel both online and off and how tourist destinations can better facilitate these practices. While travellers have been recording travel for milinea in order to “…document that they came face-to-face with history and then, when possible, to share that experience with their network of friends, family and followers who could not physically be there.”  Now, travellers are able to share, and receive feedback instantly, where previously these two events (sharing and receiving feedback) were separated by weeks if not years. Instant sharing comes at odds with the cross-cultural experience of travel and the short-lived, peak moments of cultural difference and surprise which it is meant to entail. Why? Because, lured by the opportunity to “enhance social relations, demonstrate status and establish presence” via online activity, travellers effectively remove themselves mentally from the landscape they are visiting. Lomborg states: “Instead of living in the moment and observing, appreciating and gaining cultural insight while visiting new places, travelers are often more focused on taking the perfect selfie to share on Instagram, Facebook or Twitter and counting the number of likes and shares.”

What is this article saying about social travel?
The predisposition for social travellers to publicize their travel events online during a trip is neither particularly narcissistic nor is it a new phenomena. Travel has always involved performance strategies such as graffiti which helped the journeyer to create presence, and, perhaps, find normality in a foreign landscape. Travel sharing (online or off) could then be read as a strategy to cope with alterity.  Previously, however, the audience was seemingly a more distant and abstract concern of the traveller, but now our audience virtually rides along on our shoulder continually demanding our attention and removing us from the place at hand. Travel selfies, while not necessarily narcissistic, are perhaps somewhat cultural insensitive if they are used to fortify our own egos at the expense of learning about and attending to the place which is hosting us.

In one sentence: Travel sharing is an old practice, however, new venues opened by the Internet are seductive to our egos, and potentially, destructive to cross cultural experience.

4. Is Social Media Ruining Our Experience of Travel?
Jamie Jenkins The Boar April 30th 2016

This is a first-hand account of using social media during a journey and the implications it had upon the experience of journeying.  The author talks about a recent trip to Berlin and his time spent taking “excessive” amounts of photos in his quest for Instagram and Twitter likes. As the author demonstrates, the process of accruing likes does not only involve taking photos but also editing them for the online audience. The extent to which editing is performed may also mean that presented images no longer resemble physical experience.  The author states: “A camera may never lie, but a quick Valencia filter and brightness adjustment really can make a rainy day in Germany look like I had actually taken a trip to the Bahamas. My pictures were cropped and edited so much that my holiday snaps are nothing like the Berlin that I experienced.”

Finally, the author’s experiences travelling with social media are contrasted with an earlier non social media trip. The author finds that the images taken on this earlier trip more closely resemble his memory of the journey, and, thus, this earlier trip is remembered more fondly than his trip to Berlin where he feels like he travelled only to “impress other people”.

What is this article saying about social travel?

The author talks about seeing his trip to Berlin through “a fancy Instagram filter”. The consequences of which are that his travel is performed both online and in physical space for his audience. Here, the “pressure” of enacting a successful social media performance is reflected through physical behaviours by the traveller (such as continual photo taking) which cut into travel time and, ultimately, reduce the traveller’s individual experience. The experience of travelling with the online audience in tow makes the traveller more outwardly focused. However, it also interferes with, and perhaps prohibits, the traveller’s ability to experience the landscape on their own terms.

In one sentence: The currency of likes has the power to dramatically change our experience, perception, and memory, of travel – potentially robbing it of our own individual stamp.


Connection to the Internet during travel experience makes it harder for us to experience the landscape on our own terms, and, seemingly, through our own eyes. The difference with former, unconnected travel is not that people are openly bragging about their travel experience, nor the purpose for doing which, nor even that we have mediums readily available out our fingertips to make our experiences public, rather, it is the degree to which we document our trips, the instant speed in which we are able to get feedback on our travel sharing, and, the engrossing relationship between the traveller and the screen through which experiences are cast.

It is interesting to compare the language through which un/connected travel is portrayed within the articles.

Unconnected: soak, lose ourselves, linger, living in the moment
Connected: cocoon, isolating, pressure

From this we get a clear image of Internet technology as a force that is inhibiting to the ‘spirit’ of travel. That is, the feeling of moving beyond one’s comfort zone into unfamiliar and, perhaps, transformative spaces. It will be interesting to see if travellers are able to balance technology use, and, let’s say, unscripted, spur of the moment travel. Or, if new applications or social media platforms will help in fomenting relationships with the visited landscape, rather than acting as a barrier between the traveller and it. Maybe with ubiquitous connectivity, unconnected travel will become a thing of the past and we’ll stop bemoaning its loss. Only time will tell, and I wonder what the next opinion pieces on social travel will say?

What is an Online Travel Narrative?

An online travel narrative is the collected travel records the journeyer uploads to social media platforms. It is the sum of emails, blog posts, Instagram pics, Tumblr reblogs, TripAdvisor reviews, Skype calls and YouTube videos that the traveller makes in order to share their travel experiences with others.

The online travel narrative is then complex (formed of many interconnected parts) It is distributed (occurring within a network of sites simultaneously), dynamic (in the sense that it may be edited, or receive comments from other user at any period  in time), and performative (playing to the perceived audience). It is at once public (in tagged blog posts) and private (in the case of email messages), collaborative (can be replied too) and singular (in formats where comments are turned off).

The narrative is constructed through online behaviours such as posting, tagging, sharing and replying to comments; and also offline behaviours such as drafting, recording and editing the materials which are used online; as well as the maintenance of necessary devices through practices such as charging.

The online travel narrative narrative is then a constructed and choreographed multimedia representation of a selection of the physical spaces visited by the traveller. In this way the online narrative can be seen as a parallel journey which is created by the traveller and which influences and shapes physical movement as it goes on.

The social media platforms from which my online travel narrative is constructed.

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Salient characteristics of the platforms based upon my usage pattern.

Three Tiers of Internet Connectivity During Travel

Building on my experiences reflecting on connectivity during my trip and how this can be affected by landscape, country borders and population density, I have summarised the three main connection types which I have encountered during my trip with 3 ‘r’ terms: remote, resort and residential.

While I have included a ‘Travel Type’ column which attempts to suggest which type of traveller might frequent spaces with each type of connection, this is more rough estimate than exact science. I think it would be quite common for travellers to flow between these different spaces within the course of a trip as they traverse between different destinations or touristic spaces. Also, it is possible for all 3 connection types to exist within a single area.

tiers of connectivity

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